Resurgent Islam defines Tajikistan Trans-National identity

Resurgent Islam defines Tajikistan Trans-National identity « Pakistan Ledger

Posted on October 9, 2010 by Rupee Wala

On the eve of a meeting between Tajikistan and Pakistan the atmosphere in Tajikistan is moving towards trans-national Islam. On the one hand the Tajik President Emomali Rahmon faces a militant insurgency. On the other hand Tajiksitan is getting in touch with its roots–rejecting Soviet colonialism.

Many in the region yearn for Greater Khorasan (khor “sun” + asa “literally, like or akin to, but usually meaning arising from”), which includes Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Pakistan.

The ECO is Greater Khorasan–and its presence is everywhere. The Federal Minister shared Pakistan’s view on Energy Cooperation in ECO region and conveyed Pakistan’s recommitment to the spirit, goals and objectives of the ECO.

The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) member countries have are enforcing the Transit Transport Framework Agreement (TTFA) by launching a Truck Carvan, which will start from Pakistan on Thursday. It will move across the region and terminate at Istanbul, Turkey after passing through Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan.

A symbolic send off ceremony was in Islamabad which was attended by dignitaries and businessmen. It was a Pakistani initiative of Pakistan so the Caravan was launched from Pakistan. Trucks from all Member States (One from each) including Pakistan assembled in Quetta. The Truck Caravan is being jointly organized by ECO Secretariat in Tehran and International Road Transport Union (IRU), the sources informed.

The TTFA, which provides access to the land-locked countries, was signed by the 10 member states. Increased road, rail and inland water transportation will give a much needed boost to international trade and social activities in the ECO region.

Recently the Federal Minister for Petroleum & Natural Resources of Pakistan Mr. Naveed Qamar led Pakistan’s delegation to attend the 2nd Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) ministerial meeting on energy and petroleum on October 1, 2010 at Dushanbe.

President Emomali Rahmon was eger to market the hydropower potential of Tajikistan, road and rail links. The Pakistani minister underscored that Tajikistan being ideally positioned and so close to Pakistan had a huge potential for exporting hydropower to Pakistan. Recently Russia had hosted an Afghan, Pakistan, Tajik summit which pushed for rail and road links from Pakistan to Fergana and Duhambe.

Farangis Najibullah, Zarangez Navruzshoh describe the trends in Tajikistan which goes beyond trade and economics.

Until earlier this year, one 19-year-old student from the Tajik capital, Dushanbe, was known as Shohrukh to his friends and family.

But he recently decided to ditch his “purely Tajik” first name and now answers to “Muhammad,” the name of Islam’s prophet.

“I came to this decision gradually,” Muhammad says. “I learned about Islam and wanted to get a suitable Muslim name for myself.” He says that he heard that “on Doomsday, everyone will be called by their first names, so I wanted to be called Muhammad.”

So-called Islamic names are becoming increasingly popular in the predominantly Muslim country.

Like Muhammad, those who have chosen new names are largely young men in their late teens and early 20s. And an increasing number of parents are picking Islamic names for their newborn babies.

Experts say the trend reflects the growing influence of Islam among Tajiks.

New Fashion

Approximately every fifth baby girl born in Dushanbe gets an Islamic name, and the most popular girl’s name is Sumayah, according to officials in the capital’s civil-registration office.

“Other newly popular names for girls include Asiya and Oisha, a Tajik version of the Arabic name Aisha,” says Zebo Bobojonova, the director of the Shohmansur civil-registration office in Dushanbe.

“We wouldn’t hear such names fives ago, when Iranian and Indian names like Googoosh, Anohito, and Indira were among the most desired names by parents coming to our office to get birth certificates for their babies,” Bobojonova says.

Aisha is the name of one the prophet’s wives, while Asiya is the name of a Muslim noblewoman mentioned in the Koran. According to Islamic teachings, Sumayah was the first martyr of Islam.

Names of prominent Islamic figures such as Muhammad, Yusuf, Abdullo, and Abubakr have become a trendy choice for Tajik baby boys.

Some local mullahs and imams encourage people to choose Islamic names for their children. Hoji Mirzo Ibronov, a prominent mullah and the imam of a mosque in the southern town of Kulob, says that as a local religious leader it’s his duty to convey the hadiths, sayings and deeds attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, to Muslims.

“I tell people that Allah prefers names like Abdullah and Abdurrahmon, and generally names with the combination of “Abd” [meaning ‘servant’ in Arabic] followed by another word describing Allah, such as Abdulqahhor, Abdulmannon, and Abdurrahim,” Ibronov says. “We tell people that according to the hadiths, Allah likes such names.”

Rising Religious Fervor

Mullahs and imams enjoy enormous respect among their local communities, as Islam is on the rise in the country. Boys as young as 6 oe 7 years old usually attend evening prayers in their neighborhood mosques, followed by the imams’ sermons.

Compact discs with religious leaders’ sermons explaining Islamic values are widely available in local markets.

Dilshod Rahimov, a Dushanbe-based specialist on art and culture, says such sermons and the abundant religious literature have a vast influence on young people’s mind-sets.

“Young men who are changing their first names to Islamic names are putting their religious identity before their national identity. Everybody has the right to choose whatever name they want for themselves or for their children, but I think it is somehow superficial,” Rahimov says.

“You don’t have to have an Islamic name to be a proper Muslim. For instance, in the Islamic Republic of Iran, people follow their religion but they don’t have to bear Arabic and religious names.”

Strolling through the streets of Dushanbe, the influence of religion is ever-present. One can see young people listening to sermons instead of pop music. Religious speeches and sermons are used as ring tones and groups of students can be seen listening to the speeches and sermons of their favorite imam-khatibs out loud on their phones.
The number of people attending Friday Prayers also continues to rise, to the extent that some mosques have been required to build second or even third floors and widen the area of worship to house all the attendees.
Since he took office in 1992 following a bloody civil war that resulted in the defeat of a mostly Islamic opposition, the government under President Emomali Rahmon has prohibited polygamy, banned the wearing of the hijab in government offices and in universities, and has outlawed prayer outside of the mosque.
But Said Ahmadov, former head of the Committee for Religious Affairs, says that 70 years of living under communism has made people more focused on religion and its benefits. “Using this awareness,” he explains, “they are trying to follow Shari’a law. In the meantime, this positive move disclosed many shortcomings of Tajik secular law.”
“People have by now gained more knowledge of Islamic culture and Shari’a rules,” Ahmadov says. “And the fact that some secular laws have not been properly implemented or are not being followed appropriately plays a role here.”

‘Call Me Muhammad’

Names like Sumayah or Asiya were almost unheard of in Tajikistan just a few years ago, when many parents preferred old Persian names for their children.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the names of the characters from the 10th-century Persian poet Abulqasim Firdawsi’s epic “Shahnameh” were the most popular both for baby girls and boys.

Hundreds of thousands of Tajik girls were named after Persian princesses and queens, such as Tahmeena, Gurdofarid, and Sudoba, while pre-Islamic royal names like Siyovush, Faridun, Jamshed, and Bezhan were fashionable names for boys.

At that time, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, local media encouraged a revival of the country’s ancient Persian heritage.

But some of those Jamsheds are now trading in their names for Islamic ones, Rahimov says. After all, Jamshed was a Persian monarch who followed Zoroastrian teachings.

As for 19-year-old Muhammad, he has yet to officially register his new Islamic name. The legal process for changing your name is a lengthy, complicated, and costly process in Tajikistan.

It involves obtaining letters and references from a variety of government agencies, including local authorities, local and central registry centers, and Interior Ministry branches, among others. Applicants are also required to provide police clearance certificates from every place they have lived since the age of 16, along with a letter from their school or workplace.

In addition to bureaucratic hurdles, the rampant bribery in government agencies makes the process even more expensive. It’s a common practice in Tajikistan to pay bribes for every document or letter people get from government offices, if they want to obtain the document on time.

But it doesn’t really matter, Muhammad says. “My friends and family call me by my new name and that’s enough for now,” he says. October 06, 2010, In Tajikistan, Islamic Names Are The New Fashion
by Farangis Najibullah, Zarangez Navruzshoh

Radia Free Liberty says “Even as the Tajik government maintains tight control on religion, the majority Muslim population is increasingly turning to Shari’a law — the sacred law of Islam, which is not sanctioned by the state — to resolve disputes, family affairs, and personal matters…Said Ahmadov, former head of the Committee for Religious Affairs in Tajikistan, told RFE/RL in early August that there has been an increase in the observance of Shari’a law among Tajikistan’s majority Muslim population since the country’s independence nearly 20 years ago. A Gallup poll released in August found that 85 percent of Tajiks said religion was an important part of their lives, with only 12 percent saying it was not, making Tajikistan first among Central Asian states in terms of religiosity.”

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